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When is an Instrument Rating required?
When you want to fly during weather conditions that are below those required for VFR.
In uncontrolled airspace: CIG < 1000ft, unless the VIS = at least 2miles, FAR’s – 135.205;
In controlled airspace: minimum VFR requirements apply, Ex: Class ‘C’ airspace = 3 SM & 1-5-2 rule,

FAR’s -91.155


If you want to fly an Instrument Approach Procedure and / or file an IFR Flight Plan.

What can or am I allowed to do with an IR and what is the advantage?
With an IR, you are allowed to fly in weather conditions less than those required for VFR flight.
So, even the weather changes from VMC to IMC, that is not a problem. You must not terminate your flight.
Again, you are allowed to file an IFR flight plan and approach and land at airports using Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP’s). Also, becoming an instrument rated pilot will make you a safer pilot overall, as you learn
to control your airplane, solely by monitoring your instruments. Furthermore, you will also get a more in depth
knowledge about the systems’ functionality.

What is an MEA?
MEA (Minimum Enroute Altitude). It’s the lowest altitude
published for a given Victor airway at which you must fly, to be assured navigational coverage as well as
obstacle clearance.

What is MSA?
MSA (Minimum Safe Altitude). This altitude applies to different sectors around an airport.
You will find it on IAP. It depicts a minimum Altitude at which you should be flying in case of emergencies.
The altitude might vary depending on the sector you are flying in. It provides Obstacle clearance!

What is the difference between
Act. Vectors- To-Final & Act. Approach in your GPS Unit?

“Activating Vectors-To-Final (VTF), will eliminate all previous WPs (Waypoints) that come before the Final Approach Fix (FAF/FAP)”, provided that you have selected to transition via a Initial Approach Fix  (IAF/IAP).”
It’s always a good idea to select an IAF transition instead of VTF.

What is RNAV?
RNAV is the basis for GPS Navigation

What is LNAV/VNAV?
LNAV-Lateral Navigation/VNAV-Vertical Navigation
This is basically a subsystem  of RNAV.

What is the difference between 35° course width of the ILS-Loc and 5° Loc course?
“Range of the needle = 5 degrees;
35 degrees = reception withing this distance of the antenna is possible
indication is not accurate”

Report ESTABLISHED in a hold! When are you established though?
Pilots & Flight Instructors tend to have different opinions about this. Most of them tend to say the following…
 “1. Report established when turning inbound after (initial) entry is completed
– Or –  2. during entry procedure.”
A personal Tip: ‘positive course guidance’ is a good and safe reference and achieved when the CDI is wihtin ~ 1/2 deflection (4/5 dots) of it’s center.

Difference between a Recreational & Private Pilot?

Recreational Pilot:
Is limited as far as flying!
– X-C distance is limited
– does not require a medical; minim. Age is 17 to apply
– is not allowed to fly at night
For details, please read FAR’s Part 61.101

What is a lateral limit?
Lateral is not necessarily horizontally meant. In regards to defined airspace this is about the vertical limit. Think of it as a ‘latter’! So,  lateral = vertical
Thus, the sentence or phrase – ‘within the lateral limits of this airspace…’ means within it’s ‘vertical limits’, NOT horizontal limits.

What are wind gusts?
Rapid fluctuations in wind speed with variations of 10kts or more


Wind is variable – What does that mean?
The wind direction varies (changes) by 30° or more

European Weather

What is GAFOR?
GAFOR => ‘General Aviation Forecast’ (related to aviation weather).
Provides general weather information, such as visibility (VIS) and ceiling along main/preferred VFR routes and differentiates between four categories: X = closed – M = marginal – D = difficult – O = open

The answer to your question(s) was not found? Feel free to send it to me! ;-) 

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